A study commissioned by the Western Business Roundtable claimed the Western Climate Initiative’s carbon cap-and-trade program would hurt the economies of 11 participating states and provinces, such as California. The roundtable study by Management Information Services said the initiative could “chase away tens of billions of dollars of high technology investment from the West to other regions.” It went on to say that the plan would raise energy costs and disproportionately harm low income residents. It added, the plan would have negligible benefit when it comes to containing average global temperature. Roundtable president Jim Sims said that in place of the WCI plan, which would favor wind and solar power, the West should pursue all its energy resources, including clean coal, natural gas, hydropower, and nuclear plants. The Denver-based business group recommended that WCI reorient itself toward developing proposed western greenhouse gas policies to Congress as it writes federal climate change legislation. These policies, the report said, should emphasize clean coal.