While the California Public Utilities Commission?s requirement for an excess 15 percent to 17 percent supply to ensure resource adequacy is one matter, applying those rules to geographic pockets is another. In workshops at the California Independent System Operator this week, stakeholders tried to understand and, at best, define what might be needed to ensure resource adequacy in constrained areas. Stakeholders grappled with how to ensure reliability in a ?load pocket? such as San Francisco where transmission and generation are scarce. Load pockets require a different set of rules than that of the Central Valley or on a systemwide basis, stakeholders generally agreed. CAISO?s expensive reliability-must-run (RMR) contracts for power plants that are marginally efficient are expected to be largely phased out as new, more cost-effective power plants and transmission lines are built. However, in order to ensure resource adequacy in load pockets, some stakeholders are concerned about ?perpetual RMR.? This could cause the grid operator to cling to aging power plants at a high cost to the system and impact air quality because of increased pollution. Also, the changing parameters of reliability-must-run contracted plants make a resource-adequacy equation even more difficult to derive, according to participants.